Monday, July 27, 2020
The Art and Craft of Taking Notes One of the habits I developed in high school is carrying a notebook and pen wherever I go. Its kind of like a journal, but I dont exactly like the idea of a journal a book just about what I do or feel every day would be fairly dull to keep up, at least in my opinion. Its really more of a idea book. Let me explain. Have you ever had an amazing idea about something, in the shower or while walking home from school, and then lost it before you could get it down on paper or somewhere else youd remember? Notebooks were my solution to that. I have pages of melodic fragments and bits of rhyme and little sketches of silly little science projects to try. There are names of books and movies and songs to read because someone or another recommended them to me. The notebook also means Im never bored. Do I have a few minutes? Pop out the notebook and flip through the pages, maybe jot down some thoughts about earlier entries, or look around and sketch my surroundings, or try to add a stanza to a poem from last week. Now, you might ask, whats the point of a notebook if you have a smartphone? Understand that I didnt have a smartphone in high school. Im also kind of old-fashioned-hipster-ish about notebooks. I love the feel of ink on paper, and theres a sort of thrill in physical sketching something out and labeling it with your own handwriting and adding your own signature to the bottom and carefully putting the date in the corner. Its a sort of art form in itself, and for some reason I get an inordinate amount of pleasure from it. If youre a Redditor, check out the Penmanship Porn subreddit and youll get a sense of exactly how nice ink can be. Now that Ive proudly proclaimed one of the dorkiest parts of myself, Ill say this: simply living at MIT is a huge source of inspiration. The entire place is an idea farm more than anything else. Last week at lunch, I found myself in an animated discussion about ways to improve bicycle security. And Im not just talking about sciencethe atmosphere is rich with fodder for music, art, and poetry. Youd think a place labeled an Institute of Technology would be pretty focused on technology, but I was so absolutely blown away by the MIT Musical Theater Guilds performance of Avenue Q (complete with puppets) that I went to see it twice, and I wont even start about all the bands, symphonies, orchestras, opera groups, a capella groups, improv comedy clubs, dance teams For instance, heres a page of poetry from my notebook inspired by something I saw while I was crossing Massachusetts Avenue on my way back from class. As I said before, I consider writing in notebooks an art. I mean, the point of taking notes is future reference, after allwhy not make it as pretty as possible and give your future self a treat? Its a lot more fun to study for the 8.022 exam when your notes are neat and have pretty pictures in immaculate, non-smudgable Sharpie pen. And I had to include this one even though it was technically in a problem set and not in my notebook, because I had more fun than I probably should have drawing four integrals in a row: Okay, I just wrote an entire blog post about taking notes. I think Ive filled my dorkiness allowance for the day. Allan out!
Friday, May 22, 2020
John Locke states that personal identity is a matter of physiological continuity that is based on the consciousness of a person rather than the individualÃ¢â¬â¢s body. Personal identity is constituted by memory connections; specifically the depiction of autobiographical memory connections that result in constituting personal identity. John Locke states that a personÃ¢â¬â¢s personality and psychology can be transferred to another body and that individual can still stay the same person because the consciousness of the person did not change. This idea is known as transplant intuition. This intuition is the basis of the account of personal identity. If a cerebrum was removed from one body and transplanted into a different body, the transplant intuitionÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Even if only a personÃ¢â¬â¢s body changes and the mind stays the same, the personÃ¢â¬â¢s physical identity changed, therefore a personÃ¢â¬â¢s entire identity experienced a change as well. Some errors of personal identity include the following; that since we change over time, our mind undergoes change as much as our body, so there will always be change occurring in the mind and the body. Thomas ReidÃ¢â¬â¢s argument is that identity is attributed only to the things that have continued existence, and since consciousness is transient and often interrupted, it cannot constitute personal identity. Reid gives an example of consciousness being transient when a person is either asleep or unconscious. Reid states that when a person is sleeping or unconscious, his/her consciousness is interrupted temporarily during that period of time. Locke can respond to this objection by questioning if consciousness is really transient. He can question if it is undeniably the case that we are unconscious when we are sleeping. Many other philosophers and psychologists argue that even though our conscious may be numbed during sleep, it is still functioning and has not been interrupted, that is why we are able to hear loud sounds and wake up from our sleep. Secondly, Locke only requires that it be possible and that there is a disposition to remember theShow MoreRelatedJohn Locke on Personal Identity906 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesbetween them. What is it for A and B to be the same person. That is the issue of person identity. For example what is it for me to be the same person now and when I was a baby. Is that justified to be the same person? Why? How? Locke more or less invented this topic. He came up with a idea that was really impressively sophisticated, given that he started from scratch. He took the view that appropriate criteria of identity, that is what it is that constitute sameness over time, depends on the kind of thingRead MoreJohn Locke on Personal Identity950 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesthat Locke believed that if you remain the same person, there are various entities contained in my body and soul composite that do not remain the same over time, or that we can conceive them changing. These entities are matter, organism (human), person (rational consciousness and memory), and the soul (immaterial thinking substance). This is a intuitive interpretation that creates ma ny questions and problems. I will evaluate Lockes view by explaining what is and what forms personal identity, andRead MorePersonal Identity, By John Locke1169 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesquestions surrounding personal identity: whether it consists in consciousness, whether we are just a soul or a mind and are we only who we can remember being? Locke claims that our personal identity is found in our identity of consciousness, yet can this be true if a person can change bodies, or one mind can be inhabited by various persons? In this essay, I will first be looking at LockeÃ¢â¬â¢s account of personal identity and how he comes to the conclusion that personal identity consists over time. FromRead MoreReflection Of Identity In Locke And John Lockes Personal Identity954 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesJohn Locke in Ã¢â¬Å"Personal IdentityÃ¢â¬ argues that, identity is a function of the mind and not the body. In simple terms, Locke considers personal identity as a matter of psychological continuity, founded on consciousness and not on the substance of either the soul or the body. Locke, is an empiricism which means that his theories must be built on experiences. This is why he states that consciousness is the experience we create, which then creates the personal identity of a person. Locke says that theRead MoreLocke And John Lockes Theory On Personal Identity860 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages Personal Identity or Ã¢â¬ËSelfÃ¢â¬â¢ has been a very important topic for philosophers for many years. Personal identity is how you describe or think of being which is derived from memories that have taken place over the years. John Locke was a philosopher who believed that your Ã¢â¬ËSelfÃ¢â¬â¢ or personal identity come from memory which is also referred to as consciousness in LockeÃ¢â¬â¢s writings. Locke believed that you are who you are, because your thoughts are yours alone no matter the vessel. However, in this paperRead MoreAnalysis Of John Locke And The Problem Of Personal Identity1622 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesProblems in Philosophy John Locke and the Problem of Personal Identity Personal identity, in a philosophical point of view, is the problem of explaining what makes a person numerically the same over a period of time, despite the change in qualities. The major questions answered by Locke were questions concerning the nature of identity, persons, and immorality (Jacobsen, 2016). This essay will discuss the three themes John Locke presents in his argument regarding personal identity, which are, the conceptRead MoreJohn Locke s Argument For Personal Identity Essay1547 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagespurpose of this essay is to define what Personal Identity is by analyzing John LockeÃ¢â¬â¢s argument for Personal Identity. John LockeÃ¢â¬â¢s argument for Personal Identity will be examined, in order to establish a better understanding of whether or not the argument for personal identity could be embraced. In order to do so, the essay will i) State and explain LockeÃ¢â¬â¢s argument that we are not substances or mere souls and ii) State and explain LockeÃ¢â¬â¢s con cept of personal identity and its relations to what he callsRead MoreJohn Locke s Theory Of Self And Personal Identity Essay1449 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesJohn Locke a seventeenth century Philosopher uses a number of thought experiments in his 1690 account, Ã¢â¬â¢An Essay concerning Human UnderstandingÃ¢â¬â¢. He uses these thought experiments to help explain his definition of the self and personal identity. The thought experiments that are used, go some way in explaining his opinions and in clarifying the role that memory plays in defining the term. Although defining personal identity was and still is a complex subject and not all philosophers share the sameRead MoreJohn Locke s Theory Of Personal Identity And Diversity1046 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesthis has happened and therefore cannot be blamed for such a crime. Locke is known to believe in his theory of personal identity and diversity. LockeÃ¢â¬â¢s theory talks about consciousness and how our consciousness makes our identity throu gh our experiences. Locke states that we are only considered guilty of committing a crime if we were aware of it and remember doing it. Although I agree with Locke in some terms regarding our identity having something to do with our consciousness, I do not fully agreeRead MoreDescartes And John Locke s Views On Consciousness, Self, And Personal Identity1475 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesDescartes and John Locke endeavored to question the views on consciousness, self, and personal identity. They examined belief in God, the certainty of knowledge, and the role of mind and body. The goal of this paper is to deliberate John LockeÃ¢â¬â¢s and RenÃ © Descartes views on Ã¢â¬Å"selfÃ¢â¬ and personal identity and how each come to examine how knowledge is captured. RenÃ © Descartes and John Locke both present arguments that are rational in the discussion of consciousness, self, and personal identity, but each lack
Saturday, May 9, 2020
Ã¢â¬Å"Ghana: The Autobiography of Kwame NkrumahÃ¢â¬ is a book based on the life, struggles and achievements of Dr. Kwame Nkrumah. In the book the author who in this case is the main person the book is about gives an indebt revelation of his childhood throughout his primary education, life overseas, challenges faced as an educated African man and shifted to his political journey. Although Ã¢â¬Å"Ghana: The Autobiography of Kwame NkrumahÃ¢â¬ was his major book because it ties in his whole life experience, he wrote various books such as Africa Must Unite, Class Struggle in Africa, Selected Speeches, and The Struggle Continues. According to Henry Kam Kah Nkrumah stated, Ã¢â¬Å"We must unite for economic viability, first of all, and then to recover our mineral wealth in Southern Africa, so that our vast resources and capacity for development will bring prosperity for us and additional benefits for the rest of the world. That is why I have written elsewhere that the emancipation of Africa could be the emancipation of Man.Ã¢â¬ In this statement, one realizes that Nkrumah knew that the benefits of unity were many and included the recovery of the massive mineral wealth of the continent to benefit Africa and not those who wanted to exploit them. The book entitled Ghana: The Autobiography of Kwame Nkrumah was first written in Ghana on 6th of March 1957. Since this book was written and published on Independence Day of Ghana, its analysis fulfils the ultimate aspirations of African people. Upon writing theShow MoreRelatedEssay William Edward Burghardt Du Bois or W.E.B. Du Bois3534 Words Ã |Ã 15 Pagesshould be treated as a war criminal. After spending six months in disgrace and paying $35,150 for his defense, the government dismissed its case against him. The old man was freed and declared himself a communist 12 years later at age 93, dying in Ghana, a country that loved him. It was a sad end for an intellectual giant whom Kim Pearson, a professor of journa lism at The College of New Jersey who teaches a class on Du Bois, calls, the premier African American intellectual of the 19th and 20th centuriesRead MoreBible Versus the Toran12356 Words Ã |Ã 50 Pagescrimes against black Americans. His detractors accused him of preaching racism, black supremacy, antisemitism, and violence. He has been called on of the greatest and most influential African Americans in history, and in 1998, Time named The Autobiography of Malcolm X one of the ten most influential nonfiction books of the 20th century. Malcom was born in Omaha, Nebraska. The events of his childhood, including his fathers lessons concerning black pride and self-reliance, and his own expericences
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Stefan heard a voice whisper, soft with pain, Ã¢â¬Å"Oh, no.Ã¢â¬ A voice that heÃ¢â¬â¢d never thought to hear again, that he would never forget. Ripples of chills poured over his skin, and he could feel a shaking start inside him. We will write a custom essay sample on The Vampire Diaries: Dark Reunion Chapter Twelve or any similar topic only for you Order Now He turned toward the voice, his attention fixing instantly, his mind almost shutting down because it couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t cope with so many sudden driving emotions at once. His eyes were blurred and could only discern a wash of radiance like a thousand candles. But it didnÃ¢â¬â¢t matter. He could feel her there. The same presence he had sensed the very first day heÃ¢â¬â¢d come to FellÃ¢â¬â¢s Church, a golden white light that shone into his consciousness. Full of cool beauty and searing passion and vibrant life. Demanding that he move toward it, that he forget everything else. Elena. It was really Elena. Her presence pervaded him, filling him to his fingertips. All his hungry senses were fixed on that wash of luminance, searching for her. Needing her. Then she stepped out. She moved slowly, hesitantly. As if she could barely make herself do it. Stefan was caught in the same paralysis. Elena. He saw her every feature as if for the first time. The pale gold hair floating about her face and shoulders like a halo. The fair, flawless skin. The slender, supple body just now canted away from him, one hand raised in protest. Ã¢â¬Å"Stefan,Ã¢â¬ the whisper came, and it was her voice. Her voice saying his name. But there was such pain in it that he wanted to run to her, hold her, promise her that everything would be all right. Ã¢â¬Å"Stefan, pleaseÃ¢â¬ ¦ I canÃ¢â¬â¢tÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ He could see her eyes now. The dark blue of lapis lazuli, flecked in this light with gold. Wide with pain and wet with unshed tears. It shredded his guts. Ã¢â¬Å"You donÃ¢â¬â¢t want to see me?Ã¢â¬ His voice was dry as dust. Ã¢â¬Å"I donÃ¢â¬â¢t want you to see me. Oh, Stefan, he can make anything happen. And heÃ¢â¬â¢ll find us. HeÃ¢â¬â¢ll come hereÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ Relief and aching joy flooded through Stefan. He could scarcely concentrate on her words, and it didnÃ¢â¬â¢t matter. The way she said his name was enough. That Ã¢â¬Å"Oh, StefanÃ¢â¬ told him everything he cared about. He moved toward her quietly, his own hand coming up to reach for hers. He saw the protesting shake of her head, saw that her lips were parted with her quickening breath. Up close, her skin had an inner glow, like a flame shining through translucent candle wax. Droplets of wetness were caught on her eyelashes like diamonds. Although she kept shaking her head, kept protesting, she did not move her hand away. Not even when his outspread fingers touched it, pressing against her cool fingertips as if they were on opposite sides of a pane of glass. He couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t think. His heart was threatening to come through his chest. Nothing mattered except that she was here, that they were here together. He didnÃ¢â¬â¢t notice the strange surroundings, didnÃ¢â¬â¢t care who might be watching. Slowly, so slowly, he closed his hand around hers, intertwining their fingers, the way they were meant to be. His other hand lifted to her face. Her eyes closed at the touch, her cheek leaning into it. He felt the moisture on his fingers and a laugh caught in his throat. Dream tears. But they were real, she was real. Elena. Sweetness pierced him. A pleasure so sharp it was a pain, just to stroke the tears away from her face with his thumb. All the frustrated tenderness of the last six months, all the emotion heÃ¢â¬â¢d kept locked in his heart that long, came cascading out, submerging him. Drowning both of them. It took such a little movement and then he was holding her. An angel in his arms, cool and thrilling with life and beauty. A being of flame and air. She shivered in his embrace; then, eyes still shut, put up her lips. There was nothing cool about the kiss. It struck sparks from StefanÃ¢â¬â¢s nerves, melting and dissolving everything around it. He felt his control unraveling, the control heÃ¢â¬â¢d worked so hard to preserve since heÃ¢â¬â¢d lost her. Everything inside him was being jarred loose, all knots untied, all floodgates opened. He could feel his own tears as he held her to him, trying to fuse them into one flesh, one body. So that nothing could ever separate them again. They were both crying without breaking the kiss. ElenaÃ¢â¬â¢s slender arms were around his neck now, every inch of her fitting to him as if she had never belonged anywhere else. He could taste the salt of her tears on his lips and it drenched him with sweetness. He knew, vaguely, that there was something else he should be thinking about. But the first electric touch of her cool skin had driven reason from his mind. They were in the center of a whirlwind of fire; the universe could explode or crumble or burn to ashes for all he cared, as long as he could keep her safe. But Elena was trembling. Not just from emotion, from the intensity that was making him dizzy and drunk with pleasure. From fear. He could feel it in her mind and he wanted to protect her, to shield her and to cherish her and to kill anything that dared frighten her. With something like a snarl he raised his face to look around. Ã¢â¬Å"What is it?Ã¢â¬ he said, hearing the predatorÃ¢â¬â¢s rasp in his own voice. Ã¢â¬Å"Anything that tries to hurt you-Ã¢â¬Å" Ã¢â¬Å"Ask me anything else and IÃ¢â¬â¢ll do it,Ã¢â¬ Stefan said. The killer would have to shred him nerve from nerve, muscle from muscle, cell from cell to make him leave her. Ã¢â¬Å"Stefan, itÃ¢â¬â¢s only a dream,Ã¢â¬ Elena said desperately, new tears falling. Ã¢â¬Å"We canÃ¢â¬â¢t really touch, we canÃ¢â¬â¢t be together. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s not allowed.Ã¢â¬ Stefan didnÃ¢â¬â¢t care. It didnÃ¢â¬â¢t seem like a dream. It felt real. And even in a dream he was not going to give up Elena, not for anyone. No force in heaven or hell could make himÃ¢â¬ ¦ Ã¢â¬Å"Wrong, sport. Surprise!Ã¢â¬ said a new voice, a voice Stefan had never heard. He recognized it instinctively, though, as the voice of a killer. A hunter among hunters. And when he turned, he remembered what Vickie, poor Vickie, had said. He looks like the devil. If the devil was handsome and blond. He wore a threadbare raincoat, as Vickie had described. Dirty and tattered. He looked like any street person from any big city, except that he was so tall and his eyes were so clear and penetrating. Electric blue, like razor-frosted sky. His hair was almost white, standing straight up as if blown by a blast of chilly wind. His wide smile made Stefan feel sick. Ã¢â¬Å"Salvatore, I presume,Ã¢â¬ he said, scraping a bow. Ã¢â¬Å"And of course the beautiful Elena. The beautiful dead Elena. Come to join her, Stefan? You two were just meant to be together.Ã¢â¬ He looked young, older than Stefan, but still young. He wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t. Ã¢â¬Å"Stefan, leave now,Ã¢â¬ Elena whispered. Ã¢â¬Å"He canÃ¢â¬â¢t hurt me, but youÃ¢â¬â¢re different. He can make something happen that will follow you out of the dream.Ã¢â¬ StefanÃ¢â¬â¢s arm stayed locked around her. Ã¢â¬Å"Bravo!Ã¢â¬ the man in the raincoat applauded, looking around as if to encourage an invisible audience. He staggered slightly, and if heÃ¢â¬â¢d been human, Stefan would have thought he was drunk. Ã¢â¬Å"Stefan, please,Ã¢â¬ Elena whispered. Ã¢â¬Å"It would be rude to leave before weÃ¢â¬â¢ve even been properly introduced,Ã¢â¬ the blond man said. Hands in coat pockets, he strode a step or two closer. Ã¢â¬Å"DonÃ¢â¬â¢t you want to know who I am?Ã¢â¬ Elena shook her head, not in negation but in defeat, and dropped it to StefanÃ¢â¬â¢s shoulder. He cupped a hand around her hair, wanting to shield every part of her from this madman. Ã¢â¬Å"I want to know,Ã¢â¬ he said, looking at the blond man over her head. Ã¢â¬Å"How long?Ã¢â¬ said Stefan, unimpressed. Ã¢â¬Å"A long timeÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ The blond manÃ¢â¬â¢s gaze turned dreamy, as if looking back over the years. Ã¢â¬Å"I was tearing pretty white throats when your ancestors were building the Colosseum. I killed with AlexanderÃ¢â¬â¢s army. I fought in the Trojan War. IÃ¢â¬â¢m old, Salvatore. IÃ¢â¬â¢m one of the Originals. In my earliest memories I carried a bronze ax.Ã¢â¬ Slowly, Stefan nodded. HeÃ¢â¬â¢d heard of the Old Ones. They were whispered about among vampires, but no one Stefan had ever known had actually met one. Every vampire was made by another vampire, changed by the exchange of blood. But somewhere, back in time, had been the Originals, the ones who hadnÃ¢â¬â¢t been made. They were where the line of continuity stopped. No one knew how theyÃ¢â¬â¢d gotten to be vampires themselves. But their Powers were legendary. Ã¢â¬Å"I helped bring the Roman Empire down,Ã¢â¬ the blond man continued dreamily. Ã¢â¬Å"They called us barbarians-they just didnÃ¢â¬â¢t understand! War, Salvatore! ThereÃ¢â¬â¢s nothing like it. Europe was exciting then. I decided to stick around the countryside and enjoy myself. Strange, you know, people never really seemed comfortable around me. They used to run or hold up crosses.Ã¢â¬ He shook his head. Ã¢â¬Å"But one woman came and asked my help. She was a maid in a baronÃ¢â¬â¢s household, and her little mistress was sick. Dying, she said. She wanted me to do something about it. And soÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ The smile returned and broadened, getting wider and impossibly wider, Ã¢â¬Å"I did. She was a pretty little thing.Ã¢â¬ Stefan had turned his body to hold Elena away from the blond man, and now, for a moment, he turned his head away too. He should have known, should have guessed. And so it all came back to him. VickieÃ¢â¬â¢s death, and SueÃ¢â¬â¢s, were ultimately to be laid at his door. He had started the chain of events that ended here. Ã¢â¬Å"Katherine,Ã¢â¬ he said, lifting his head to look at the man. Ã¢â¬Å"YouÃ¢â¬â¢re the vampire who changed Katherine.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"To save her life,Ã¢â¬ the blond man said, as if Stefan were stupid at learning a lesson. Ã¢â¬Å"Which your little sweetheart here took.Ã¢â¬ A name. Stefan was searching for a name in his mind, knowing that Katherine had told it to him, just as she must have described this man to him once. He could hear KatherineÃ¢â¬â¢s words in his mind: I woke in the middle of the night and I saw the man that Gudren, my maid, had brought. I was frightened. His name was Klaus and IÃ¢â¬â¢d heard the people in the village say he was evil Ã¢â¬ ¦ Ã¢â¬Å"Klaus,Ã¢â¬ the blond man said mildly, as if agreeing with something. Ã¢â¬Å"That was what she called me, anyway. She came back to me after two little Italian boys jilted her. SheÃ¢â¬â¢d done everything for them, changed them into vampires, given them eternal life, but they were ungrateful and threw her out. Very strange.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"What was even stranger was that she never got over you, Salvatore. You especially. She was always drawing unflattering comparisons between us. I tried to beat some sense into her, but it never really worked. Maybe I should have just killed her myself, I donÃ¢â¬â¢t know. But by then IÃ¢â¬â¢d gotten used to having her around. She never was the brightest. But she was good to look at, and she knew how to have fun. I showed her that, how to enjoy the killing. Eventually her brain turned a little, but so what? It wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t her brains I was keeping her for.Ã¢â¬ There was no longer any vestige of love for Katherine in StefanÃ¢â¬â¢s heart, but he found he could still hate the man who had made her what she was in the end. Ã¢â¬Å"Me? Me, sport?Ã¢â¬ Klaus pointed to his own chest in unbelief. Ã¢â¬Å"You made Katherine into what she is right now, or rather your little girlfriend did. Right now, sheÃ¢â¬â¢s dust. WormÃ¢â¬â¢s meat. But your sweetie is just slightly beyond my reach at present. Vibrating on a higher plane, isnÃ¢â¬â¢t that what the mystics say, Elena? Why donÃ¢â¬â¢t you vibrate down here with the rest of us?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"If only I could,Ã¢â¬ whispered Elena, lifting her head and looking at him with hatred. Ã¢â¬Å"Oh, well. Meanwhile IÃ¢â¬â¢ve got your friends. Sue was such a sweet girl, I hear.Ã¢â¬ He licked his lips. Ã¢â¬Å"And Vickie was delectable. Delicate but full bodied, with a nice bouquet. More like a nineteen-year-old than seventeen.Ã¢â¬ Stefan lunged one step forward, but Elena caught him. Ã¢â¬Å"Stefan, donÃ¢â¬â¢t! This is his territory, and his mental powers are stronger than ours. He controls it.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Precisely. This is my territory. Unreality.Ã¢â¬ Klaus grinned his staring psychotic grin again. Ã¢â¬Å"Where your wildest nightmares come true, free of charge. For instance,Ã¢â¬ he said, looking at Stefan, Ã¢â¬Å"howÃ¢â¬â¢d you like to see what your sweetheart really looks like right now? Without her makeup?Ã¢â¬ Elena made a soft sound, almost a moan. Stefan held her tighter. Ã¢â¬Å"ItÃ¢â¬â¢s been how long since she died? About six months? Do you know what happens to a body once itÃ¢â¬â¢s been in the ground six months?Ã¢â¬ Klaus licked his lips again, like a dog. Now Stefan understood. Elena shivered, head bent, and tried to move away from him, but he locked his arms around her. Ã¢â¬Å"ItÃ¢â¬â¢s all right,Ã¢â¬ he said to her softly. And to Klaus: Ã¢â¬Å"YouÃ¢â¬â¢re forgetting yourself. IÃ¢â¬â¢m not a human who jumps at shadows and the sight of blood. I know about death, Klaus. It doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t frighten me.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"No, but does it thrill you?Ã¢â¬ KlausÃ¢â¬â¢s voice dropped, low, intoxicating. Ã¢â¬Å"IsnÃ¢â¬â¢t it exciting, the stench, the rot, the fluids of decomposing flesh? IsnÃ¢â¬â¢t it a kick?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Stefan, let me go. Please.Ã¢â¬ Elena was shaking, pushing at him with her hands, all the time keeping her head twisted away so he couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t see her face. Her voice sounded close to tears. Ã¢â¬Å"Please.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"The only Power you have here is the power of illusion,Ã¢â¬ Stefan said to Klaus. He held Elena to him, cheek pressed to her hair. He could feel the changes in the body he embraced. The hair under his cheek seemed to coarsen and ElenaÃ¢â¬â¢s form to shrink on itself. Ã¢â¬Å"Stefan, I donÃ¢â¬â¢t want you to look at me-Ã¢â¬Å" Eyes on Klaus, Stefan gently pushed the coarsened white hair away and stroked the side of ElenaÃ¢â¬â¢s face, ignoring the roughness against his fingertips. Ã¢â¬Å"But of course most of the time it just decomposes. What a way to go. You lose everything, skin, flesh, muscles, internal organs-all back into the groundÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ The body in StefanÃ¢â¬â¢s arms was dwindling. He shut his eyes and held tighter, hatred for Klaus burning inside him. An illusion, it was all an illusionÃ¢â¬ ¦ Ã¢â¬Å"StefanÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ It was a dry whisper, faint as the scratch of paper blown down a sidewalk. It hung on the air a minute and then vanished, and Stefan found himself holding a pile of bones. Ã¢â¬Å"And finally it ends up like that, in over two hundred separate, easy-to-assemble pieces. Comes with its own handy-dandy carrying caseÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ On the far side of the circle of light there was a creaking sound. The white coffin there was opening by itself, the lid lifting. Ã¢â¬Å"Why donÃ¢â¬â¢t you do the honors, Salvatore? Go put Elena where she belongs.Ã¢â¬ Stefan had dropped to his knees, shaking, looking at the slender white bones in his hands. It was all an illusion-Klaus was merely controlling BonnieÃ¢â¬â¢s trance and showing Stefan what he wanted Stefan to see. He hadnÃ¢â¬â¢t really hurt Elena, but the hot, protective fury inside Stefan wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t recognize that. Carefully, Stefan laid the fragile bones on the ground and touched them once, gently. Then he looked up at Klaus, lips curled with contempt. Ã¢â¬Å"That is not Elena,Ã¢â¬ he said. Ã¢â¬Å"Of course it is. IÃ¢â¬â¢d recognize her anywhere.Ã¢â¬ Klaus spread his hands and declaimed, Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬ËI knew a woman, lovely in her bonesÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬â¢ Ã¢â¬Å" Ã¢â¬Å"No.Ã¢â¬ Sweat was beading on StefanÃ¢â¬â¢s forehead. He shut out KlausÃ¢â¬â¢s voice and concentrated, fists clenched, muscles cracking with effort. It was like pushing a boulder uphill, fighting KlausÃ¢â¬â¢s influence. But where they lay, the delicate bones began trembling, and a faint golden light shone around them. Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ËA rag and a bone and a hank of hairÃ¢â¬ ¦ the fool he called them his lady fairÃ¢â¬ ¦ Ã¢â¬Ë Ã¢â¬Å" The light was shimmering, dancing, linking the bones together. Warm and golden it folded about them, clothing them as they rose in the air. What stood there now was a featureless form of soft radiance. Sweat ran into StefanÃ¢â¬â¢s eyes and he felt as if his lungs would burst. Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬ËClay lies still, but bloodÃ¢â¬â¢s a roverÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬â¢ Ã¢â¬Å" Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬ËAnd the crack in the teacup opens a lane to the land of the dead . . .Ã¢â¬â¢ Ã¢â¬Å" Ã¢â¬Å"No.Ã¢â¬ Dizziness swept over Stefan as he felt the last surge of Power sigh out of him. A breath lifted the figureÃ¢â¬â¢s breast, and eyes blue as lapis lazuli opened. Elena smiled, and he felt the blaze of her love arc to meet him. Ã¢â¬Å"Stefan.Ã¢â¬ Her head was high, proud as any queenÃ¢â¬â¢s. Stefan turned to Klaus, who had stopped speaking and was glaring mutely. Ã¢â¬Å"This,Ã¢â¬ Stefan said distinctly, Ã¢â¬Å"is Elena. Not whatever empty shell sheÃ¢â¬â¢s left behind in the ground. This is Elena, and nothing you do can ever touch her.Ã¢â¬ He held out his hand, and Elena took it and stepped to him. When they touched, he felt a jolt, and then felt her Powers flowing into him, sustaining him. They stood together, side by side, facing the blond man. Stefan had never felt as fiercely victorious in his life, or as strong. Klaus stared at them for perhaps twenty seconds and then went berserk. His face twisted in loathing. Stefan could feel waves of malignant Power battering against him and Elena, and he used all his strength to resist it. The maelstrom of dark fury was trying to tear them apart, howling through the room, destroying everything in its path. Candles snuffed out and flew into the air as if caught in a tornado. The dream was breaking up around them, shattering. Stefan clung to ElenaÃ¢â¬â¢s other hand. The wind blew her hair, whipping it around her face. Ã¢â¬Å"Stefan!Ã¢â¬ She was shouting, trying to make herself heard. Then he heard her voice in his mind. Ã¢â¬Å"Stefan, listen to me! There is one thing you can do to stop him. You need a victim, Stefan-find one of his victims. Only a victim will know-Ã¢â¬Å" The noise level was unbearable, as if the very fabric of space and time was tearing. Stefan felt ElenaÃ¢â¬â¢s hands ripped from his. With a cry of desperation, he reached out for her again, but he could feel nothing. He was already drained by the effort of fighting Klaus, and he couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t hold on to consciousness. The darkness took him spinning down with it. Bonnie had seen everything. It was strange, but once she stepped aside to let Stefan go to Elena, she seemed to lose physical presence in the dream. It was as if she were no longer a player but the stage the action was being played upon. She could watch, but she couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t do anything else. In the end, sheÃ¢â¬â¢d been afraid. She wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t strong enough to hold the dream together, and the whole thing finally exploded, throwing her out of the trance, back into StefanÃ¢â¬â¢s room. Ã¢â¬Å"Stefan? Are you okay?Ã¢â¬ He looked wildly around the room as if trying to find something. Ã¢â¬Å"Elena!Ã¢â¬ he said, and then he stopped, memory clearly returning. His face twisted. For one dreadful instant Bonnie thought he was going to cry, but he only shut his eyes and dropped his head into his hands. Ã¢â¬Å"Stefan?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"I lost her. I couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t hold on.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"I know.Ã¢â¬ Bonnie watched him a moment, then, gathering her courage, knelt in front of him, touching his shoulders. Ã¢â¬Å"IÃ¢â¬â¢m sorry.Ã¢â¬ His head lifted abruptly, his green eyes dry but so dilated they looked black. His nostrils were flared, his lips drawn back from his teeth. Ã¢â¬Å"Klaus!Ã¢â¬ He spat the name as if it were a curse. Ã¢â¬Å"Did you see him?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Yes,Ã¢â¬ Bonnie said, pulling back. She gulped, her stomach churning. Ã¢â¬Å"HeÃ¢â¬â¢s crazy, isnÃ¢â¬â¢t he, Stefan?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Yes.Ã¢â¬ Stefan got up. Ã¢â¬Å"And he must be stopped.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"But how?Ã¢â¬ Since seeing Klaus, Bonnie was more frightened than ever, more frightened and less confident. Ã¢â¬Å"What could stop him, Stefan? IÃ¢â¬â¢ve never felt anything like that Power.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"But didnÃ¢â¬â¢t you-?Ã¢â¬ Stefan turned to her quickly. Ã¢â¬Å"Bonnie, didnÃ¢â¬â¢t you hear what Elena said at the end?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"No. What do you mean? I couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t hear anything; there was a slight hurricane going on at the time.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"BonnieÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ StefanÃ¢â¬â¢s eyes went distant with speculation and he spoke as if to himself. Ã¢â¬Å"That means that he probably didnÃ¢â¬â¢t hear it either. So he doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t know, and he wonÃ¢â¬â¢t try to stop us.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"From what? Stefan, what are you talking about?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"From finding a victim. Listen, Bonnie, Elena told me that if we can find a surviving victim of KlausÃ¢â¬â¢s, we can find a way to stop him.Ã¢â¬ Bonnie was in completely over her head. Ã¢â¬Å"ButÃ¢â¬ ¦ why?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Because vampires and their donors-their prey-share minds briefly while the blood is being exchanged. Sometimes the donor can learn things about the vampire that way. Not always, but occasionally. ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s what must have happened, and Elena knows it.Ã¢â¬ She expected Stefan to be deflated, but he wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t. Ã¢â¬Å"A vampire,Ã¢â¬ he said simply. Ã¢â¬Å"A human Klaus made into a vampire would qualify as a victim. As long as theyÃ¢â¬â¢ve exchanged blood, theyÃ¢â¬â¢ve touched minds.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Oh. Oh. SoÃ¢â¬ ¦ if we can find a vampire heÃ¢â¬â¢s madeÃ¢â¬ ¦ but where?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Maybe in Europe.Ã¢â¬ Stefan began to pace around the room, his eyes narrowed. Ã¢â¬Å"Klaus has a long history, and some of his vampires are bound to be there. I may have to go and look for one.Ã¢â¬ Bonnie was utterly dismayed. Ã¢â¬Å"But Stefan, you canÃ¢â¬â¢t leave us. You canÃ¢â¬â¢t!Ã¢â¬ Stefan stopped where he was, across the room, and stood very still. Then at last, he turned to face her. Ã¢â¬Å"I donÃ¢â¬â¢t want to,Ã¢â¬ he said quietly. Ã¢â¬Å"And weÃ¢â¬â¢ll try to think of another solution first-maybe we can get hold of Tyler again. IÃ¢â¬â¢ll wait a week, until next Saturday. But I may have to leave, Bonnie. You know that as well as I do.Ã¢â¬ There was a long, long silence between them. Bonnie fought the heat in her eyes, determined to be grown up and mature. She wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t a baby and she would prove that now, once and for all. She caught StefanÃ¢â¬â¢s gaze and slowly nodded. How to cite The Vampire Diaries: Dark Reunion Chapter Twelve, Essay examples
Tuesday, April 28, 2020
In my research I learned that there is no simple definition for principles of effective teaching. As we all know learning is a challenge and change in each individual. In an effort to summarize principles of learning a handful of ideas come to mind. Communication, Interaction, Diversity Recognition, Program Knowledge, Teaching Techniques, Student Exercises, and Appropriate Breaks. Learning is more likely to occur if there is a realistic and attainable learning goal. Teaching principles also are effective when information is presented at the appropriate level for the students. Students must be capable of learning the information with respect to the material presented and the program objective. Learning most definitely occurs more easily when the material matches the wants, needs, or aspirations of the organization. When delivering the material via a clear communication method, we must relate the material taught and how it affects the trainees of the organization or how it will help the organization accomplish its goal. We will write a custom essay sample on Principles of Effective Teaching or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Trainees must see the relevance of the information being delivered and how they will apply it in their current roles. In essence when communicating in the training setting learning occurs best when practice is as close as possible to real-world phases, situations and resolutions. Interactions in training programs are essential for not only the trainers benefit but the trainee. Simulations are excellent learning techniques, but cannot replace day to day experiences. Trainees appreciate feedback on their performance as soon as possible. It gives them a sense of accomplishment and boosts their learning horizons. Interesting how trainees learn more efficiently if they are required to Ã¢â¬Å"look upÃ¢â¬ the information rather than being given the answer. If learning materials are too easy, trainees will not perceive the activity seriously. If learning materials are too complex, trainees will give up before trying the activity. Diversity recognition in organizations have spent untold millions on multi-cultural awareness and diversity training. (Aguinis) The goal is for organizations to value and celebrate differences as well as similarities, thereby delivering a more harmonious and productive work environment. Enlightened trainers know that diversity within the business and global workforce will continue to grow into the 21st century and that this reality must be acknowledged effectively in order for organizations to compete, survive, and thrive in this innovating and competitive market. Recently human resource managers, organizational researchers and trainers have been developing criteria to help determine what programs work and what programs dont. One approach in diversity training is to take the pulse of an organization before, during, and after the training programs. Checkering) Program knowledge comes from confidence. Preparing your own slides or paper materials forces you to master your subject program. Your knowledge improves to the degree that you approach the presentation in a visual display less argumentative and with every word and chart on that visual display the trainer will give the opportunity to support the material presented. Your knowledge also increases to the extent tha t the trainer takes the time to reorganize the presentation so that the material is delivered in a learning manner. Trainers however need to be prepared that the audience may have questions or objections. Nothing disarms an objection better than a trainer who smiles in a natural manner and states: Im glad that you have asked that that questions or have advised me of your concern! (Parker) Knowledge also increases the extent that the trainer is proud of the material and visual displays. Be proud of the fact that you have been asked to present this program. It is obvious that you have been identified for you skills and knowledge, that you have what the organization requires for the delivery of it purpose, need, or whatÃ¢â¬â¢s. After preparing a well-argued, good-looking program, the trainer will look forward to the presentation because it will provide as much information as possible to share the visual displays with the trainees. Believing in the message and being proud of the presentation will help identify the trainerÃ¢â¬â¢s enthusiasm and the presentation will be off to a roaring start and ultimately in a well execute finish! Teaching techniques are also an important process. Arriving early and testing out all the equipment is essential. Locate the room lighting switches and identify the rooms seating arrangements. Arrange your program materials before the trainees arrive and familiarize yourself with the environment layout. Know how to smoothly work the room. Check sound levels and know where there are blind spots for the trainees. If you are using a wireless microphone, find out its range and all hot spots in the room are. These can cause loud feedback if you talk while standing at a distance. When delivering the program the trainer must interpret the information to the trainees in an enthusiastic, conversational upbeat tone rather than reading them which is a dull sound of boredom for all present. Welcome your trainees as they enter the room. This delivers a comfort zone for the trainer and your audience. By introducing yourself to your trainees, you become a likable, vulnerable element rather than an authority figure to be challenged or disliked. Never delay the start of your training program. Start on time! This shows you are serious about your program and so should all the trainees involved. Pay no attention if a trainee walks out during your program with a bored or annoyed look on his/her faces. The trainee may have just found out they were in the wrong session or they may be just unhappy with your presentation of the material. It is possible to predict the success of your presentation as determined by the acceptance of your ideas or trainees interactions from the analysis of the trainees and the response during your presentation of the program. (Parker) Trainees need to actively participate in any program as often as possible. The reasoning behind this technique is that employers constantly want their employees to be able to work in groups. Yet, employees often complain about working in such groups, partly because it is difficult to get along. One way to get the trainees to participate more in the program is to give mini team assignments that they have to complete in a couple of minutes. This allows for a leader selection, sub leader selection, followers and bottom line participants selection. With this process the trainees will apply this grouping technique and apply it in the real life working environment. With these techniques the trainer can help the audience develop a skill for group participation and offering a way to integrate as a whole. With these changing times many organizations find themselves having to restructure and over lapping job functions in order to keep from letting personnel go. Breaks are necessary! Keep in mind that many trainees might not work in a single environment on a daily basis. It is important to recognize when the audience starts to lose interest in the presentation. Signs of distraction and need for a break can come in many forms. Restlessness, fidgeting, sighing, side conversations and a decrease in participation are all indicators a break may be needed. It is essential that these signs are not taken personal and as an experienced trainer that you revise your program schedule if need be. Allow the break to either start earlier of extend itself slightly depending in the atmosphere perceived. Trainers usually benefit from these breaks because the audience returns reenergized and ready for business. Food, drinks or basic restroom breaks can make a negative situation into a positive one. Following the break the trainer can then proceed to execute the presentation or training and deliver the organizations goal and purpose. In conclusion there are many training techniques and principals behind effective teaching. It is up to the trainer to study, plan, prepare and deliver the program required. The ultimate goal is to ascertain that the audience has benefited from the materials and training presented and the organization has positive results from such. If this is not accomplished the trainer is in the obligation the reevaluate his/her techniques and implement a different teaching style if required.
Friday, March 20, 2020
Earthquakes Essays - Seismology, Types Of Earthquake, Free Essays Earthquakes EARTH QUAKE REFERENCE FILES EARTHQUAKE REFERENCE FILES Earthquake, shaking of the earths surface caused by rapid movement of the earths rocky outer layer. Earthquakes occur when energy stored within the earth, usually in the form of strain in rocks, suddenly releases. This energy is transmitted to the surface of the earth by earthquake waves. The study of earthquakes and the waves they create is called seismology. Scientists who study earthquakes are called seismologists. (Websters p.423) The destruction an earthquake causes, depends on its magnitude or the amount of shaking that occurs. The size varies from small imperceptible shaking, to large shocks felt miles around. Earthquakes can tear up the ground, make buildings and other structures collapse, and create tsunamis (large sea waves). Many Lives can be lost because of this destruction. (The Road to Jaramillo p.211) Several hundred earthquakes, or seismic tremors, occur per day around the world. A worldwide network of seismographs detect about one million small earthquakes per year. Very large earthquakes, such as the 1964 Alaskan earthquake, which measured 8.6 on the Richter scale and caused millions of dollars in damage, occur worldwide once every few years. Moderate earthquakes, such as the 1989 tremor in Loma Prieta, California (magnitude 7.0), and the 1995 tremor in Kbe, Japan (magnitude 6.8), occur about 20 times a year. Moderate earthquakes also cause millions of dollars in damage and can harm many people. (The Road to Jaramillo p.213-215) In the last 500 years, several million people have been killed by earthquakes around the world, including over 240,000 in the 1976 Tang-Shan, China, earthquake. Worldwide, earthquakes have also caused severe property and structural damage. Good precautions, such as education, emergency planning, and constructing stronger, more flexible structures, can limit the loss of life and decrease the damage caused by earthquakes. (The Road to Jaramillo p.213-215,263) AN EARTHQUAKES ANATOMY Seismologists examine the parts of an earthquake, like what happens to the earths surface during an earthquake, how the energy of an earthquake moves from inside the earth to the surface, and how this energy causes damage. By studying the different parts and actions of earthquakes, seismologists learn more about their effects and how to predict ground shaking in order to reduce damage. (On Shifting Ground p.109-110) Focus and Epicenter The point within the earth along the rupturing geological fault where an earthquake originates is called the focus, or hypocenter. The point on the earths surface directly above the focus is called the epicenter. Earthquake waves begin to radiate out from the focus and follow along the fault rupture. If the focus is near the surface between 0 and 70 km (0 and 40 mi.) deep shallow focus earthquakes are produced. If it is deep below the crust between 70 and 700 km (40 and 400 mi.) deep a deep focus earthquake will occur. Shallow-focus earthquakes tend to be larger, and therefore more damaging, earthquakes. This is because they are closer to the surface where the rocks are stronger and build up more strain. (The Ocean of Truth p.76 & The road to Jaramillo p.94-97) Seismologists know from observations that most earthquakes originate as shallow-focus earthquakes and most of them occur near plate boundaries areas where the earths crustal plates move against each other. Other earthquakes, including deep-focus earthquakes, can originate in subduction zones, where one tectonic plate subducts, or moves under another plate. (The Ocean of Truth p.54-56) I Faults Stress in the earths crust creates faults places where rocks have moved and can slip, resulting in earthquakes. The properties of an earthquake depend strongly on the type of fault slip, or movement along the fault, that causes the earthquake. Geologists categorize faults according to the direction of the fault slip. The surface between the two sides of a fault lies in a plane, and the direction of the plane is usually not vertical; rather it dips at an angle into the earth. When the rock hanging over the dipping fault plane slips downward into the ground, the fault is called a normal fault. When the hanging wall slips upward in relation to the bottom wall, the fault is called a reverse fault or a thrust fault. Both normal and reverse faults produce vertical displacements, or the upward movement of one side of the fault above the other side, that appear at the surface as fault scarps. Strike slip faults are another type of fault that produce horizontal displacements, or the side by side sliding movement of the fault, such as seen along the
Tuesday, March 3, 2020
An Overview of the Common Core Assessments The adoption of the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) is arguably the biggest educational shift in the history of the United States. Having a set of national standards that most states have chosen to adopt is unprecedented. However, the bigger shift in traditional educational philosophy will come in the form of the Common Core assessment. While the national adoption of the standards themselves is immense, the potential impact of having a shared national assessment system is even bigger. Most states would argue that the standards they already had in place align pretty well to the Common Core State Standards. However, the rigor and presentation of the new assessments will even challenge your top tier students. Many school administrators and teachers will need to totally revamp their approach in order for their students to succeed on these assessments. What has been the norm when it comes to test prep will no longer be enough. In an age where a premium has been placed on high stakes testing, those stakes will have never been higher than they will be with the Common Core assessments. Impact of a Shared Assessment System There are several potential ramifications of having a shared assessment system. Many of these ramifications will be positive for education and many will no doubt be negative. First of all the pressure placed on students, teachers, and school administrators will be greater than ever. For the first time in educational history states will be able to accurately compare their studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ achievement to students in neighboring states. This factor alone will cause the pressures of high stakes testing to go through the roof. Politicians will be forced to pay more attention and increase funding in education. They will not want to be a low performing state. The unfortunate reality is that many excellent teachers will lose their jobs and others will choose to enter another field simply because the pressure of getting students to perform well on these assessments will be too large. The microscope for which teachers and school administrators will be under will be massive. The truth is that even the best teachers can have students perform poorly on an assessment. There are so many external factors that attribute to student performance that many would argue that basing the worth of a teacher on a single assessment is simply not valid. However, with the Common Core assessments, this will most likely be overlooked. Most teachers will have to increase rigor in the classroom by challenging their students to think critically. This will be a challenge for both students and teachers. In an age where parents are less involved, and students have information readily given to them at the click of a mouse, developing critical thinking skills will be even more of a challenge. This has been arguably one of the most neglected areas of education, and it will no longer be an option to omit it. Students must excel in critical thinking if they are to perform well on these assessments. Teachers will have to restructure how they teach to develop these skills. This will be such as massive shift in teaching and learning philosophies that it may take a generation of students to cycle through before we see a large group truly start to develop these skills. In the end, this shift in educational philosophy will better prepare our students to succeed. More students will be ready to transition to college or will be work ready when they graduate high school. In addition, the skills associated with the Common Core State Standards will prepare students to compete on the global level. Another benefit of a shared assessment system will be that costs to individual states will be reduced dramatically. With each state having its own set of standards, they have had to pay to have tests developed specifically to meet those standards. This is an expensive endeavor and testing has become a multimillion dollar industry. Now with a common set of assessments, states will be able to share in the cost of test development, production, scoring, etc. This could potentially free up more money allowing it to be spent in other areas of education. Who is developing these assessments? There are currently two consortia responsible for developing these new assessment systems. These two consortia have been awarded funding through a competition to design new assessment systems. All states who have adopted the Common Core State Standards have selected a consortium in which they are a partner with other states. These assessments are currently in the development stage. The two consortia responsible for developing these assessments are: SMARTER Balanced Assessment Consortium (SBAC) Ã¢â¬â Alabama, California, Colorado, Connecticut, Delaware, Hawaii, Idaho, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Maine, Michigan, Missouri, Montana, Nevada, New Hampshire, North Carolina, North Dakota, Ohio, Oregon, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, South Dakota, Utah, Vermont, Washington, West Virginia, Wisconsin, and Wyoming.Partnership for Assessment of Readiness of College and Careers (PARCC) Ã¢â¬â Alabama, Arizona, Arkansas, Colorado, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Massachusetts, Mississippi, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, and Tennessee. Within each consortia, there are states that have been selected to be a governing state and others who are a participating/advisory state. Those that are governing states have a representative that gives direct input and feedback into the development of the assessment that will accurately measure student progress toward college and career readiness. What will these assessments look like? The assessments are currently being developed by the SBAC and PARCC consortia, but a general description of what these assessments will look like has been released. There are a few released assessment and performance items available. You can find some sample performance tasks for English Language Art (ELA) in Appendix B of the Common Core State Standards. The assessments will be through course assessments. This means that students will take a benchmark assessment at the beginning of the year, with the option of ongoing progress monitoring throughout the year, and then a final summative assessment towards the end of the school year. This type of assessment system will allow teachers to see where their students are at all times during the school year. It will allow a teacher to more readily cater to a particular students strengths and weaknesses to prepare them better for the summative assessment. The assessments will be computer-based. This will allow for quicker, more accurate results and feedback on the computer scored portion of the assessments. There will be portions of the assessments that will be human scored. One of the biggest challenges for school districts will be preparing for the computer-based assessments. Many districts across the United States do not have enough technology to test their entire district via computer at this time. During the transition period, this will be a priority that districts must prepare for. All students grades K-12 will participate in some level of testing. Grades K-2 tests will be designed to set the foundation for students and also give information to teachers that will help them better prepare those students for the rigorous testing that begins in the 3rd grade. Grades 3-12 testing will be much more tied directly to the Common Core State Standards and will consist of a variety of item types. Students will see a variety of item types including innovative constructed response, extended performance tasks, and selected response (all of which will be computer based). These are much more difficult than simple multiple choice questions as students will be assessed on multiple standards within one question. Students will often be expected to defend their work through a constructed essay response. This means that they simply wonÃ¢â¬â¢t be able to come up with an answer, but will additionally need to defend the answer and explain the process through written response. With these Common Core assessments, students must also be able to write coherently in the narrative, argumentative, and informative/explanatory forms. An emphasis on balance between traditional literature and informational text is expected within the framework of the Common Core State Standards. Students will be given a passage of text and will have to construct a response based on questions over that passage in a specific form of writing that the question asks for. The transition to these types of assessments will be difficult. Many students will struggle initially. This will not be due to a lack of effort on teachers but will be based more on the overwhelming task at hand. This transition will take time. Understanding what the Common Core Standards are all about and what to expect from the assessments are the first steps in a long process of being successful.