Friday, March 20, 2020

Earthquakes Essays - Seismology, Types Of Earthquake, Free Essays

Earthquakes Essays - Seismology, Types Of Earthquake, Free Essays Earthquakes EARTH QUAKE REFERENCE FILES EARTHQUAKE REFERENCE FILES Earthquake, shaking of the earths surface caused by rapid movement of the earths rocky outer layer. Earthquakes occur when energy stored within the earth, usually in the form of strain in rocks, suddenly releases. This energy is transmitted to the surface of the earth by earthquake waves. The study of earthquakes and the waves they create is called seismology. Scientists who study earthquakes are called seismologists. (Websters p.423) The destruction an earthquake causes, depends on its magnitude or the amount of shaking that occurs. The size varies from small imperceptible shaking, to large shocks felt miles around. Earthquakes can tear up the ground, make buildings and other structures collapse, and create tsunamis (large sea waves). Many Lives can be lost because of this destruction. (The Road to Jaramillo p.211) Several hundred earthquakes, or seismic tremors, occur per day around the world. A worldwide network of seismographs detect about one million small earthquakes per year. Very large earthquakes, such as the 1964 Alaskan earthquake, which measured 8.6 on the Richter scale and caused millions of dollars in damage, occur worldwide once every few years. Moderate earthquakes, such as the 1989 tremor in Loma Prieta, California (magnitude 7.0), and the 1995 tremor in Kbe, Japan (magnitude 6.8), occur about 20 times a year. Moderate earthquakes also cause millions of dollars in damage and can harm many people. (The Road to Jaramillo p.213-215) In the last 500 years, several million people have been killed by earthquakes around the world, including over 240,000 in the 1976 Tang-Shan, China, earthquake. Worldwide, earthquakes have also caused severe property and structural damage. Good precautions, such as education, emergency planning, and constructing stronger, more flexible structures, can limit the loss of life and decrease the damage caused by earthquakes. (The Road to Jaramillo p.213-215,263) AN EARTHQUAKES ANATOMY Seismologists examine the parts of an earthquake, like what happens to the earths surface during an earthquake, how the energy of an earthquake moves from inside the earth to the surface, and how this energy causes damage. By studying the different parts and actions of earthquakes, seismologists learn more about their effects and how to predict ground shaking in order to reduce damage. (On Shifting Ground p.109-110) Focus and Epicenter The point within the earth along the rupturing geological fault where an earthquake originates is called the focus, or hypocenter. The point on the earths surface directly above the focus is called the epicenter. Earthquake waves begin to radiate out from the focus and follow along the fault rupture. If the focus is near the surface between 0 and 70 km (0 and 40 mi.) deep shallow focus earthquakes are produced. If it is deep below the crust between 70 and 700 km (40 and 400 mi.) deep a deep focus earthquake will occur. Shallow-focus earthquakes tend to be larger, and therefore more damaging, earthquakes. This is because they are closer to the surface where the rocks are stronger and build up more strain. (The Ocean of Truth p.76 & The road to Jaramillo p.94-97) Seismologists know from observations that most earthquakes originate as shallow-focus earthquakes and most of them occur near plate boundaries areas where the earths crustal plates move against each other. Other earthquakes, including deep-focus earthquakes, can originate in subduction zones, where one tectonic plate subducts, or moves under another plate. (The Ocean of Truth p.54-56) I Faults Stress in the earths crust creates faults places where rocks have moved and can slip, resulting in earthquakes. The properties of an earthquake depend strongly on the type of fault slip, or movement along the fault, that causes the earthquake. Geologists categorize faults according to the direction of the fault slip. The surface between the two sides of a fault lies in a plane, and the direction of the plane is usually not vertical; rather it dips at an angle into the earth. When the rock hanging over the dipping fault plane slips downward into the ground, the fault is called a normal fault. When the hanging wall slips upward in relation to the bottom wall, the fault is called a reverse fault or a thrust fault. Both normal and reverse faults produce vertical displacements, or the upward movement of one side of the fault above the other side, that appear at the surface as fault scarps. Strike slip faults are another type of fault that produce horizontal displacements, or the side by side sliding movement of the fault, such as seen along the

Tuesday, March 3, 2020

An Overview of the Common Core Assessments

An Overview of the Common Core Assessments The adoption of the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) is arguably the biggest educational shift in the history of the United States. Having a set of national standards that most states have chosen to adopt is unprecedented. However, the bigger shift in traditional educational philosophy will come in the form of the Common Core assessment. While the national adoption of the standards themselves is immense, the potential impact of having a shared national assessment system is even bigger. Most states would argue that the standards they already had in place align pretty well to the Common Core State Standards. However, the rigor and presentation of the new assessments will even challenge your top tier students. Many school administrators and teachers will need to totally revamp their approach in order for their students to succeed on these assessments. What has been the norm when it comes to test prep will no longer be enough. In an age where a premium has been placed on high stakes testing, those stakes will have never been higher than they will be with the Common Core assessments. Impact of a Shared Assessment System There are several potential ramifications of having a shared assessment system. Many of these ramifications will be positive for education and many will no doubt be negative. First of all the pressure placed on students, teachers, and school administrators will be greater than ever. For the first time in educational history states will be able to accurately compare their students’ achievement to students in neighboring states. This factor alone will cause the pressures of high stakes testing to go through the roof. Politicians will be forced to pay more attention and increase funding in education. They will not want to be a low performing state. The unfortunate reality is that many excellent teachers will lose their jobs and others will choose to enter another field simply because the pressure of getting students to perform well on these assessments will be too large. The microscope for which teachers and school administrators will be under will be massive. The truth is that even the best teachers can have students perform poorly on an assessment. There are so many external factors that attribute to student performance that many would argue that basing the worth of a teacher on a single assessment is simply not valid. However, with the Common Core assessments, this will most likely be overlooked. Most teachers will have to increase rigor in the classroom by challenging their students to think critically. This will be a challenge for both students and teachers. In an age where parents are less involved, and students have information readily given to them at the click of a mouse, developing critical thinking skills will be even more of a challenge. This has been arguably one of the most neglected areas of education, and it will no longer be an option to omit it. Students must excel in critical thinking if they are to perform well on these assessments. Teachers will have to restructure how they teach to develop these skills. This will be such as massive shift in teaching and learning philosophies that it may take a generation of students to cycle through before we see a large group truly start to develop these skills. In the end, this shift in educational philosophy will better prepare our students to succeed. More students will be ready to transition to college or will be work ready when they graduate high school. In addition, the skills associated with the Common Core State Standards will prepare students to compete on the global level. Another benefit of a shared assessment system will be that costs to individual states will be reduced dramatically. With each state having its own set of standards, they have had to pay to have tests developed specifically to meet those standards. This is an expensive endeavor and testing has become a multimillion dollar industry. Now with a common set of assessments, states will be able to share in the cost of test development, production, scoring, etc. This could potentially free up more money allowing it to be spent in other areas of education. Who is developing these assessments? There are currently two consortia responsible for developing these new assessment systems. These two consortia have been awarded funding through a competition to design new assessment systems. All states who have adopted the Common Core State Standards have selected a consortium in which they are a partner with other states. These assessments are currently in the development stage. The two consortia responsible for developing these assessments are: SMARTER Balanced Assessment Consortium (SBAC) – Alabama, California, Colorado, Connecticut, Delaware, Hawaii, Idaho, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Maine, Michigan, Missouri, Montana, Nevada, New Hampshire, North Carolina, North Dakota, Ohio, Oregon, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, South Dakota, Utah, Vermont, Washington, West Virginia, Wisconsin, and Wyoming.Partnership for Assessment of Readiness of College and Careers (PARCC) – Alabama, Arizona, Arkansas, Colorado, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Massachusetts, Mississippi, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, and Tennessee. Within each consortia, there are states that have been selected to be a governing state and others who are a participating/advisory state. Those that are governing states have a representative that gives direct input and feedback into the development of the assessment that will accurately measure student progress toward college and career readiness. What will these assessments look like? The assessments are currently being developed by the SBAC and PARCC consortia, but a general description of what these assessments will look like has been released. There are a few released assessment and performance items available. You can find some sample performance tasks for English Language Art (ELA) in Appendix B of the Common Core State Standards. The assessments will be through course assessments. This means that students will take a benchmark assessment at the beginning of the year, with the option of ongoing progress monitoring throughout the year, and then a final summative assessment towards the end of the school year. This type of assessment system will allow teachers to see where their students are at all times during the school year. It will allow a teacher to more readily cater to a particular students strengths and weaknesses to prepare them better for the summative assessment. The assessments will be computer-based. This will allow for quicker, more accurate results and feedback on the computer scored portion of the assessments. There will be portions of the assessments that will be human scored. One of the biggest challenges for school districts will be preparing for the computer-based assessments. Many districts across the United States do not have enough technology to test their entire district via computer at this time. During the transition period, this will be a priority that districts must prepare for. All students grades K-12 will participate in some level of testing. Grades K-2 tests will be designed to set the foundation for students and also give information to teachers that will help them better prepare those students for the rigorous testing that begins in the 3rd grade. Grades 3-12 testing will be much more tied directly to the Common Core State Standards and will consist of a variety of item types. Students will see a variety of item types including innovative constructed response, extended performance tasks, and selected response (all of which will be computer based). These are much more difficult than simple multiple choice questions as students will be assessed on multiple standards within one question. Students will often be expected to defend their work through a constructed essay response. This means that they simply won’t be able to come up with an answer, but will additionally need to defend the answer and explain the process through written response. With these Common Core assessments, students must also be able to write coherently in the narrative, argumentative, and informative/explanatory forms. An emphasis on balance between traditional literature and informational text is expected within the framework of the Common Core State Standards. Students will be given a passage of text and will have to construct a response based on questions over that passage in a specific form of writing that the question asks for. The transition to these types of assessments will be difficult. Many students will struggle initially. This will not be due to a lack of effort on teachers but will be based more on the overwhelming task at hand. This transition will take time. Understanding what the Common Core Standards are all about and what to expect from the assessments are the first steps in a long process of being successful.

Sunday, February 16, 2020

Bank Regulations in Europe Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 4000 words

Bank Regulations in Europe - Essay Example There are currently many regulatory transitions underway which will have multifaceted effects on how Banks are run in Europe and the ultimate investments they deem as adequate for progressive growth. The controversy surrounding these regulations stems from past success as well as the impact recent recession ratios have imposed on the market. The question this analysis will attempt to address is whether or not these regulations are necessary for European banks to progress in the years to come. Basel II is the second of the Basel Accords. These are recommendations set by the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision. The point of these laws is to apply some regulation to the worldwide banking system, an international standard by which all banks may abide. These regulations are an attempt to safeguard the Banking Market against many of the risks banks face yearly. They have seen as a safety net for the international banking market in the case that one major bank collapses. The main focus of the regulations is to reduce the amount of risk all banks take on. Through rigorous risk and capital regulations, Basel II is able to ensure that Banks are not able to take on more risk than they have solvency to maintain. Despite the Basel II regulations and their proven success throughout the past years, recent developments in the global economy have pointed to a need for more strict regulations. This can largely be connected to the massive recession that has occurred over the past two ye ars in the global economy. The nature of the European Banking system and its current need for BeselIII regulations is in reaction to the state of the Economy. The CIA World Factbook notes that the United States of America has the largest economy in the globe. "The recent failure in the U.S. housing and credit markets have resulted in a slowdown in the US economy. 2007 GDP growth was estimated at 2.2% but in 2008 it is projected to be just 0.9%, down from the 10-year average of 2.8% (St Labs, p1)." According to the United States Department of Labor, The Unemployment rate as of September 2009 was 9.8%, which is the result of a progressive growth 8.9% in April 2009. The Banks have followed suit with the housing industry as well as many of the corporations gout This effect in the west has impacted the Europes. University of Maryland economist Peter Morici declares "we are in a depression (Shinkle, p1)." He signifies a recession as an economic decline from which an economy can eventually recover but poses that the state the American economy is in today is much worse and can't be resolved with a quick fix. "My feeling is that if (the president) doesn't fix what's structurally broken, what caused this, we'll be back into this after the federal stimulus has had its effect," says Morici (Shinkle, p1). Many different aspects of the American economy have come under fire as the cause of this financial crisis, most infamous of these methods to date are credit default swap contracts and short selling. The very first credit default swap contract was constructed in 1997 by JP Morgan and it is given credit for what initiated the market to balloon up to a $45 trillion value in 2007 (Pinsent, p1).

Sunday, February 2, 2020

MR, empanada Internal Anaysis Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

MR, empanada Internal Anaysis - Research Paper Example The organizational chain supply process is tracked by the respective branch managers thereafter everything needed is then delivered from the Headquarter. Mr. Empanada is keen to employ an automated system which is able to check on the inventory and dispatch the required inventory to the centers even before the actual order has been placed. (Empanada Operations Manual 109). The organization is also keen to take charge of crucial interests ensuring that the company serves to the customers’ demands as seen July1992 during the launch of the 4th branch. One of the breakthroughs that have been achieved is the acquisition of a modern processing machine in Dec 2013 that has enhanced the processing speed and distribution to the various branches where preservations and sale is done. The main aim of this technology adoption targeted enhancement of efficiency and quality of production in terms of capacity buying and customers’ policy satisfaction. The restaurant has designed large grills where numerous panadas can be produced at ago and a dressing station where the staffing of the condiments such meat additives and other ingredients’ is done awaiting distribution to the branches (Empanada Operations Manual 109). Marketing and sales Mr. ... However, the effect of the final decision is based on the corporation officer who is also been accredited the powers to input and implement changes in consideration to the brands at Mr. Empanada (Mr. Empanada Operations Manual 109). As a matter of rewarding customers, the organization uses gift card coupons, which are loaded at the point of sale terminal in all the outlets with some specified amount of dollars in reference to the number of purchases made by the customers. When a customer wilts to redeem the points to pay bills, the card is, therefore, swiped at the POS and the deduction is automatically made by the card processor at the headquarters, which monitor the store lineage and either debits or credits appropriately in reflex to the location (Mr. Empanada Operations Manual 110). With the new social media working platform appearing an important aspect in all areas of marketing, Mr. Empanada Franchise Corporation has considered investing time and the organizations resources int o social media strategy as a definite necessity to wards customer awareness. Through the administration of all social media, the organization has received very real measurable returns of about 40% from initial media earnings. The facilitation has been made by the discretion of additional administrators responsible for hirirng agents who manage the social media pieces. Taking considerations to a social media site like face book, a single look design has been made, which can be accessed from different quarter while it is primarily administered at central location. This has popularized company branding and improved the awareness to a vast population while increasing customers loyalty and trust to the organization about the products the projection of lifespan of a product during

Saturday, January 25, 2020

Report On Military Applications Of Gnss Information Technology Essay

Report On Military Applications Of Gnss Information Technology Essay Recent years have witnessed an increasingly use of GNSS technologies in diverse areas of human endeavours. Governments, organisations, individuals etc. are beginning to rely upon GNSS technology in finding solutions to problems in different fields of life (Spirent, 2002: 17). One obvious area where GNSS technology has been deployed successfully since the launching of satellite navigation is in military applications. Military applications of GNSS date back in 1978 when the first Global Positioning System was launched by US Department of Defence. Since then, many GNSS and associated navigation systems are being used in military mission fields. This report examines past and present military applications of GNSS; it also attempts to look into future of military applications in the context of emerging trends and developments in GNSS world. 1.2 Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) is generic term encompassing all satellite navigation systems that allows users to determine their locations by observing radio signals transmitted by GNSS satellites. First among them is the US Navigation by Satellite Ranging and Timing (NAVSTAR) Global Positioning System (GPS). Russian Global Navigation Satellites System (GLONASS) is the second generation of GNSS, conceived also as a military system.. The next generation of GNSS is the European Unions Galileo which is expected to be in full operation by early 2014. GNSS market is poised for revolution with the full deployment of Galileo constellation of satellites. Other Regional GNSS include Beidou operated by China, although through its Compass, China has planned to launch satellite navigation system with global coverage. Indian Regional Navigation Satellite System (IRNSS) is another GNSS in the development. Uncertainty still trail IRNSS project since India entered into partnership with Russian GLONASS. QZSS is another regional navigation system operated by Japan. It is developed to supplement GPS signals in Japan and neighbouring areas. Besides these, there are other regional GNSS space-based augmentation systems aim to improve the performance of GPS/GLONASS. The major regional augmentation systems are WAAS, EGNOS (European Geostationary National Overlay Service), MTSAT-Based Satellite Augmentation System (MSAS) in Japan and Indian GPS Aided Geo Augmented Navigation (GAGAN) GPS and GLONASS stand out among the list when it comes to military applications. GPS and GLONASS have been used in many military operations. 1.3 Global Positioning Systems (GPS) US Global Positioning System (GPS) was designed as a dual-use technology (civilian and military use). The positioning service available to civil users is called Standard Positioning Service, while that of the military is called Precise Positioning Service. GPSs Precise Positioning Service (PPS) is used for most military applications. Precise Positioning Service is restricted to only US military, NATO forces, and other users licensed by US Government. The encrypted precise code signals P(Y) and M-code are used for military applications. M- Code is a new signal being to realise the fundamental aim of achieving precise and accurate navigation services for military applications. These signals are broadcasted in link 1 (L1) and link 2 (L2) bands. L1C-d and L1C-p signals will be added to the PPS users under the GPS phased modernisation programme (Groves, 2008: 12). In times of navigation data messages, MNAV message broadcasts are broadcast on M-code signals. GPS is presently undergoing p hased restructuring and modernisation and it is expected that new programme will ensure that existing users are transmitted P(Y) code while the new users are transmitted new M code (Kaplan and Hegarty (2006: 654). 1.4. GLONASS Like GPS, GLONASS was conceived as a military system but designed to offer both military and civil positioning service (Groves 2008: 17). GLONASS P code signals are used for military applications and transmitted in both bands LI and L2 with frequencies 1592.95MHz 1613.86MHz and 1237.83 MHz 1256MHz respectively (Groves, 2008: 19). GLONASS K, fully modernised satellites are set to broadcast new signals that will improve the accuracy of military operations. 2.0 GNSS Positioning Requirements: The positioning principles are basically the same for GNSS systems. Generally, a GNSS receiver records three or more satellites signals to determine a 2 dimensional coordinates, while four or more signals are needed for 3 dimensional coordinates. The accuracy of GNSS position solution depends on the type of GNSS device used and application under consideration. Accuracy: Accuracy is a critical factor in military applications. GPS was launched because of the military requirements for high accurate global navigation (Len, 2007:185). In case of timing service, military operations require precise time transfer for synchronization of equipment and various operations (Len 2007: 184). The GPS PPS offers horizontal accuracy of 1.2m and vertical accuracy of 1.9m based on 24 satellite constellations (Groves, 2008). With its modernisation program, GLONASS is set to compete with GPS as it planned to achieve the same positioning accuracy with GPS. The Galileo Public-Regulated Service (PRS) has a lower accuracy when compared to that of GPS PPS; it has horizontal accuracy of 3m and vertical accuracy of 6m, much more lower to its Open Service (Groves, 2008: 20) Availability: Availability is also of the important characteristics of GNSS performance. Availability of navigation system is defined by US Federal Radionavigation Plan (FRP) as the percentage of time that the services of the system are within the required performance limits (Wang et al 2006: 1). Global availability of GNSS for military applications is expected to increase with the ongoing modernisation of GLONASS. GLONASS K satellites when fully launched will improve the accuracy of P code for military applications. India has partnered with Russia in the GLONASS project, and it is expected that India and other countries will have access GLONASS military signals for their mission operations and equipment testing. Aside from GPS military signals, more countries are today using civil signals in many military missions and equipment testing. Integrity: GPS will have full integrity monitoring and alert system as the fourth segment when the modernisation programme is completed. GLONASS K satellites will broadcast integrity information and differential corrections in L3 band. Similarly, Galileo will broadcast integrity alerts and some differential corrections. 2.1 GNSS Markets GNSS technology is naturally divided into two broad markets/applications civil / commercial markets and military markets. The user equipment used in military applications can be classified into two types: (i) GNSS receivers operated by human beings such as handheld type, human operated receivers on ships, aircrafts and vehicles (Len, 2007: 184 -185) (ii) Autonomous receivers these are not dependent of any human operation and usually integrated with inertial sensors. They are used in guided missile programs and newer military applications. Comparison between Military and Civil Receivers Military Civil Frequencies L1, L2 L1 and /or L1, L2 (L5 on 11F satellites Codes P(Y), M, C/A, C C/A and C (on modernised satellites Size/weight/power Card, handheld, receiver unit Chips, handheld, receiver unit Navigation accuracy 1m to 5m 5m to 10m Anti interference Greater than 54 dB Usually not more than 24 dB Integration A/J antennas, communications, inertial sensors Speed/heading sensors, communications, GIS, inertial sensors Adapted from (Len 2007: 183) 3.0 Military Applications of GNSS Of all GNSS, GPS has been most widely used in military applications. Essentially, GPS was developed to satisfy military requirements for a global positioning, navigation and timing service. (Kaplan, and Hegarty, 2006: 654). Military application of GPS started in late 1970s when GPS was used for weapon testing in the then US Navy Submarine Launched Ballistic Program (SLBM). GPS was used to track the Submarine Launched Ballistic Missiles from a ship as the missile travelled down the Atlantic (Len, 2007: 174). The GPS military equipment used for the missile testing then made use of translator. Subsequently, other weapon testing was conducted in the air and ground vehicles (Len, 2007: 177). Today, GPS can be deployed to variety of military applications. Some of these include: target acquisition; missile guidance, search and rescue; coordinate bombing; precision survey, instrument approach; antisubmarine warfare; range instrumentation; remotely piloted vehicle operations; barebase operati ons; close air support; en route navigation; command and control; field artillery and shore bombardment; rendezvous, sensor emplacement etc. (Len, 2007: 177 -178). Other military applications of GNSS include mine location, enemy radar location, Special Forces intelligence gathering etc (Dye and Baylin, 1997: 82). 3.1 GNSS/ Inertial Integration Systems: GNSS such as GPS has been proved to be weak in term of providing high quality and reliable position solution (Spirent, 2010). Thus inertial sensors are being used in many applications to complement GNSS. Inertial navigation system is a small, self contained device that uses inertial sensors (accelerometers and gyroscopes) to calculate position and velocity solution of a moving object (Logsdon, 1995: 39). It makes use of dead reckoning navigation system (Groves 2008: 7). Using GPS measurements, INS navigation solution is calibrated and corrected via integration algorithm (Groves and Long, 2005: 2). GPS/INS integration is popular in the guided weapons and unmanned air vehicles (UAVs) where low cost sensors are used (Groves and Long, 2005: 2). INS function independently of GNSS signals susceptible to jamming, interference, enemy manipulation and other distortions and are therefore used in many military applications (Dye and Baylin, 1997: 13). Examples of practical applications of GNSS/ INS based solutions are given in the report. Advantages of GNSS/INS based solution: INS offers continuous navigation operations; it provides high-bandwidth output (50 Hz) and low short-term noise; it also provides attitude, angular rate, and acceleration measurements as well as position and velocity (Groves and Long 2005: 419) (Groves 2008: 8). GPS provides a high accuracy which does not drift with time(Groves and Long, 2005: 419) Disadvantages of GNSS/INS based solution: The accuracy of INS output is degraded with time thus necessitating the need to calibrate the errors (Groves 2008: 8). Unlike INS, GNSS has lower bandwidth (1Hz), more noisier than that INS and does not usually include altitude (Groves and Long 2005: 419, 420) One obvious challenge in the military use of GNSS is issue of deliberate jamming and interference by the enemies. GPS receivers have been found to be susceptible to jamming due to low signal power of GPS signal. This trend has raised a concern to US Department of Defence in the recent years thus signalling the programme of developing various anti-jamming techniques to mitigate these effects. Recent anti jamming technologies include nulling of antennas and ultra tight coupling of the GPS and the inertial sensors (Kaplan, and Hegarty (2006: 656). 3.2 Practical Applications of GPS in Precision Guidance In 1991, US army and its allies successfully deployed GPS in the attack to rescue oil rich Kuwait after its invasion by Iraq in an operation tagged Operation Desert Storm. GPS receivers were fitted in the military aircrafts and helicopters, bombs were dropped from these aircrafts as targeted thus eliminating unwanted casualties. GPS receivers were used to know the coordinates of the targets so that the weapons can be delivered accurately. In 1995, GPS was also deployed during the Bosnia war by the combined US and NATO forces in a campaign tagged Operation Deliberate Force. Military aircrafts operating from their base in Italy were fully equipped with GPS equipment in the strike against the Bosnia Serb forces. Perhaps, the Joint Direct Attack Munition (JDAM) is the most impressive breakthrough GPS has achieved in area of precision guidance. JDAM is an independent, tail kit with gravity bomb; it is usually mounted on the military fighter jets and uses GPS/INS guidance to deliver the target (Cozzens, 2006). JDAM has the capability of working in all weather conditions and its accuracy is not dependent on the altitude (Cozzens, 2006). JDAM recorded 9.6m accuracy during their testing. JDAM have been successfully deployed in many operations. For example, in June 2006, US Air Force successfully used GBU-38 Joint Direct Attack Munition equipped with GPS precision guidance to kill former Iraq terrorist leader Abu Musab al Zarqawi in his house (Cozzens, 2006). Once on the air, GPS/INS guidance enables the gravity bomb to be delivered accurately at the targets (Cozzens, 2006). In case of GLONASS, Russian military has deployed GLONASS military signals in many missions (Len, 2007: 189). Russian Federation Airforce recently developed latest KAB family of weapons called KAB 500S. KAB 500S is a guided bomb similar to that of US JDAM. KAB 500S can be dropped from aircraft at altitudes of 500 to 10,000 metres and airspeeds of 550 to 1,100 kilometres per hour (Deagel, 2007). It uses GLONASS Military code and INS to strike the targets (Len, 2007: 189). The third generation GNSS, Galileo has encrypted signal Public Regulated Service that may be used for military applications in the near future. 4.0 GNSS Future and Military Applications: The GNSS have made giant strides in military applications particularly in area of guided weaponry and smart bombs. GPS-aided munitions, ranging from artillery shells to smart shells have proved to be a reliable technology in recent time in times of accuracy (Lucio, (2002), (Wells, (2001). Countries all over the world will continue to embrace these technologies as cheaper GPS/INS coupled munitions are being produced to meet the requirements for accurate, precise timing and navigation solutions in the land, air and sea in near future. Current developments in GNSS industry like new signals and constellations acquisition will usher new era of high accurate military based satellite navigation. The separation of GPS signals for military and civilian use will lessen the effects of jamming and interference in military operations coupled with high signal power of new M code. GPS new military code will improve the anti-jamming capability of the system as current modernisation programme will make it autonomous. Non coherence integration of the acquisition circuit of the new military code will enhance the performance of the system in the presence of noise and jamming (Betz et al, 2005: 45, 46). In the area of system integrity, modernization programme of GPS and GLONASS will offer users more reliable measurements as they will have options to validate GNSS measurements. Presently, only GPS and GLONASS are used for military applications. I look at future where GNSS will be more available for military applications. More countries will be authorised to have access to GPS P(Y) code in near future and others will want develop their own SBASs. For example, Nigeria has developed its own SBAS called NIGCOMSAT with coverage only in Nigeria for now. Modernised GPS civil signals will continue to be used by countries not authorised to use P(Y) code. Only, recently, Russian Government announced that GLONASS military signals will be freely made available to any country that want to use them. Already, India and Russian have agreed to collaborate on GLONASS project (Len, 2007: 190). It is expected that more Countries will enter into agreements with Russian when GLONASS constellation of satellites are fully deployed in the orbit. China is making steady progress on its Compass project and is poised to use the system to strengthen its national security. Finally, GNSS industry is geared for revolution when Galileo is fully operationalised in next few years. Galileo has an encrypted signal PRS which has potentials for military applications. It is already been speculated that this may be used for military applications in the near future, although Galileo is purely conceived as a civilian system.

Friday, January 17, 2020

CACHE Early Years Education And Care Essay

1.1 and 1.2: Physical care needs for children in relation to nappy changing, would be keeping children clean and dry, by changing soiled nappies as soon as possible. Making sure to wear an apron and gloves, use the right sized nappy and by using the appropriate wipes and creams (if needed). Toilet training routine care needs would be asking children to go to the toilet at regular intervals. Learning to wipe, clean them selves up and to flush. Making sure they wash and dry their hands after use of toilet. Washing and bath time care needs would be to make sure water is not to hot or cold. Seeing that hands, face and body are thoroughly cleaned with appropriate soap and either sponge or flannel. Skin care would include making sure it is clean. Seeing that the right creams and ointments are used for cuts, sores and certain skin conditions (eczema, psoriasis etc). Having noses wiped, and tissues then being put into a bin and making sure coughs and sneezes are covered then washing hands af ter. Teeth care is to make sure that teeth are brushed at least twice a day with a suitable toothbrush and toothpaste that is appropriate for each age group and needs of each child. Hair care includes having hair washed with a suitable shampoo and conditioner ( if conditioner is needed). Having hair brushed everyday at least once. Making sure hair is cut and maintained regularly (checked for head lice etc). Mealtime care routines differ between ages of children. Babies would require temperature-controlled formula in a sterilised bottle around every 3-4 hours, with them being winded during and after each feed. Toddlers would require food easy to chew (blended or soft foods), at least 3 times a day with plenty of fluids in between. Young children would eat a variety of normal foods, and would learn how to eat with a fork, knife and spoon etc. They would be taught to wash hands before eating and to sit appropriately at a table. The children would be encouraged to ask for more should they want it and help themselves to pouring drinks etc. 1.3: Non- routine physical care would be required if a child was to have an accident, e.g. wet or soiled themselves, fall over or split something which  needed cleaning or clothes changing. Other non-routine care would be if a child was to become ill e.g. be sick, has an allergic reaction etc. 1.4: Benefits in working in partnership with parents/carers is the information received for each individual child and creates a good relationship which builds confidence for everyone.. Parents can learn from you and you can learn from parents. For example knowing which child has allergies or certain medical conditions. Which child takes medication or has behavioural issues. Also to find out if there are any cultural issues or language barriers. Children can be different at home/school therefore there is a need to work together to reduce this effect, by working together can help with synchronising routines, e.g. no good doing something one way at home and another way at setting. Having care plans set in place for each child and having all issues, needs and likings/dislikings for each child can be maintained and can continue at home during holidays, weekends etc. Good working partnership helps parents feel empowered and not excluded from treatment plans etc. Unit 1.3 Y/505/9283 Support physical care routines for children 2.1: Hygienic practice to sterilising equipment is to make sure ands and surface areas around sterilised equipment are washed. Then make sure all feeding and preparation equipment is washed in hot soapy water. Use bottle/teat brushes to clean and make sure all previous feed is removed from inside and outside of bottles/teats, then rinse all under tap once cleaned. If using a commercial steriliser then you would need to follow the manufactures instructions. If boiling then make sure all bottles, teats etc are fully submerged with no air bubbles. Cover and boil at least for 10mins. It is best to remove equipment. Hygienic practice for preparing formula feeds is to clean hands and all surfaces before preparation. It is best to make up feeds just before use. Use fresh boiled water and then leave to cool. Once cooled, use the exact amount of formula as instructed then re-assemble bottle. Shake bottle making sure everything well mixed. Holding under tap or put in container cool formula to right feeding temperature. Always check temperature of feed on the inside of wrist by squirting a few  drops, before giving it to baby. Always discard any left over feed after 2hours. 2.2: There are all varieties of formula milk, so they should be used in accordance to the needs of each child, as certain children may need a different formula to another child. Using the wrong formula, adding to much/little or not having the feed, at the right temp can affect the health of babies. If the feed has been left or stored to long it can cause the growth of bacteria. If the person or surrounding areas have not been washed/cleaned thoroughly that can also cause bacteria growth, and bacteria transfer onto sterilised equipment. If equipment has not been cleaned or sterilised properly then that can also cause bacteria to grow and not be eliminated. Unit 1.3 Y/505/9283 Support physical care routines for children 3.1: The role of an early years practitioner in relation to hand washing would be to make sure hands are washed thoroughly before preparing meals/snacks times and also afterwards. Hands should also be washed after changing and toileting. In relation to food hygiene hands must always be washed, then put on gloves and apron before handling/preparing foods. Food should stored in the correct tubs etc and at the right temperature. Food preparation areas should be cleaned thoroughly and different equipment should be used for different food types, to stop cross-contamination. Spillages should be cleaned up straight away to prevent accidents, staining and contamination etc, with the appropriate equipment (cloths, paper towels, mops). All waste should be disposed into the right bins, bags etc and then removed into an outdoor bin at the end of each day. When preparing foods, changing children, cleaning spillages and disposing of waste, an early years practitioner should always make sure hands have been washed before and after. They should always wear an apron and gloves where appropriate. Unit 1.3 Y/505/9283 Support physical care routines for children 5.1: Rest and sleep needs differ from each child and each age group. For  example a 6-week-old baby will usually require around 15-16 hours per day. Most of these would be during the night and baby would probably be having around 3-4 naps per day. At 6 weeks, a baby will more than likely still be waking for feeds during the night. At 7 months a baby would be falling into a sleep pattern of around 11 hours each night, with around 2 naps during the day consisting of around 1-2 hours each. Most 7 month olds would be sleeping through the night. When it comes to children of 15 months old, sleep patterns change again. Most 15 month olds will be sleeping through the night for around 13 hours. They will need 1 nap during the day or 2 quick rest naps. These sleep patterns will usually stay the same till around the age of 3 years. Sleep and rest patterns for children aged 4-5 years would be around 10-12 hours a night without day naps. By the age of 6-7 years children would have around 8-10 hours a night also without daytime naps. All children will rest and sleep better if they have the same routine nap an bedtime each day/night. The sooner a child gets into a routine the better it can be for them settling. 5.2: Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) is the sudden and unexplained death of a baby, where no cause is found. While SIDS is rare, it can still occur and there are steps parents and take to help reduce the risks. Things you can do would be to always place your baby on their back to sleep. Keep your baby smoke free during and after birth. Have covers no higher than baby’s shoulders and tuck them in. Have baby sleep in your room for the first 6 months in a cot, crib or moses basket. Use a firm, flat and waterproof mattress in good condition and place baby in â€Å"feet to foot† position. The things to avoid would be to never sleep in a chair or on a sofa with your baby. Don’t sleep in the same bed as your baby, if you smoke or have been drinking or taking drugs etc. Don’t let your baby get to hot or cold and don’t use loose coverings. Unit 1.3 Y/505/9283 Support physical care routines for children N1: 6.1: Measles is a highly infectious viral illness that can be very unpleasant and can sometimes lead to serious complications that can sometimes be fatal.  These include bacterial infection in the lungs (pneumonia) and the brain (encephalitis). Measles is caused by a virus spread in droplets and is very easy to be caught by those who have not been vaccinated. Typical symptoms of measles include fever, cough, conjunctivitis and a rash. Complications are even quite common in healthy people, and about 20% of reported measles cases experience one or more complication. Most people who are at risk of developing serious complications are babies younger than 12 months, children in poor health, teenagers and adults. 6.2: The first MMR vaccinations are usually given when your child is about 13 months old. A second is usually given before your child starts school. Adults and 6-13 month old children can also have the MMR vaccine if they are at risk of catching measles, if there is an outbreak of measles in your local area, or if you have been in close contact with someone who has measles. 6.3: There are parents who decide against having their children immunised, for a variety of reasons. For example some cultures or religions do not like or believe in having immunisations. Most go against immunisation because of a published document by a Dr Wakefield, claiming that the MMR vaccine is linked to Autism. Even though Dr Wakefield’s study were found to be faked, some parents still don’t want their children to receive the MMR vaccine. Unit 1.3 Y/505/9283 Support physical care routines for children 7.1: Supporting children in physical care routines in relation to toileting, would be to have potties and toilet seats. To encourage children to use the toilet and to wash, dry and flush after toilet use. Have posters or pictures cards of actions which the children could follow,(like 1,2,3 steps Wipe,Flush,Wash,Dry etc.) on the walls or cubicle doors. In relation to washing, all children are encouraged to wash and dry their hands after toilet use, before meals/snack times and after doing certain activities (painting, sticking etc). Mealtime children are encouraged to get their own plates, cups etc, to have their hands washed and an apron on. They are also encouraged to feed themselves with the use of cutlery (if of appropriate age). Unit 1.3 question answers, 1.1, 1.2 and 5.1 also relate to the above. Unit 2.1 K/505/9286 An introduction to the role of the early years practitioner 2.1: People communicate to express needs, emotions and to share ideas. They also communicate to express feelings and to socialise. You also need to communicate to share experiences and to ask questions or to complain about things. Communication is also good for helping others to understand things. People communicate to establish and maintain relationships with others. Communication also helps with receiving and giving instructions and for getting information. It helps to share opinions and give encouragement. There are different ways of communicating either orally, hand signing or even written. Looking at body language is also a use of communication. 2.2: Communication is essential for carer to meet the needs of each individual child and their families. Communicating clearly and openly with other members of staff, the manager so as to make sure that the best possible care is provided and that this is done so reliably. This will help build your relationship and trust with colleagues and develop your role and theirs within the workplace. It ensures any health and safety or any other issues are recognised and reported accordingly, keeping others informed of current situations. It is also vital so parents and agencies/professionals, can inform or instruct their needs and issues with the carer or establishment of a child. Communication between a practitioner and child, is essential to build the childs confidence and helps promote good behaviour. Being a positive role model in the setting is vital to bond relationships to interact with others, helping the child to settle better and have an effective developments in all areas. Having good communication with parents also helps build a successful relationship with their child which then helps parents begin to have confidence and trust in us, that we can take care of their child. It is very important to have good communication with other agencies like Social Workers, Speech and Language/Therapist or other professionals who are involved in providing and  dealing with all childrens needs, to work together as part of a team, with consistency in their work. This helps by each individual knowing where they stand and where they need to progress further in helping to meet the needs of each child and their families.

Thursday, January 9, 2020

Moving West And Beyond How The Corps Of Discovery Shaped...

Anthony Tirone Mr. Campbell AP United States History 9 March 2015 Moving West and Beyond: How the Corps of Discovery Shaped Manifest Destiny Beginning in the early 1800s manifest destiny had no single root or cause, but became over time, a mindset which propelled the westward expansion of America. Manifest Destiny was the belief that the expansion of the United States throughout the continent of North America was both justified and inevitable. The actual term â€Å"Manifest destiny† was not coined until 1845 when an American columnist and editor, John O Sullivan, created it to promote the annexations of Texas and the Oregon Territory. However, before the term was coined, expansion had already been taking place in America for almost four decades. Beginning in 1803 with the Louisiana Purchase, America had set in stone from early in its beginnings that the frontier was the future. To fulfill this belief, the United States needed to purchase the West from the French. 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